There are several ways in which we can categorize Gmail help websites. In this context, Gmail help websites would be those that Gmail users who encounter difficulties visit, in a bid to get assistance.

Firstly, Gmail help websites can be categorized on the basis of the people behind them. This is where, on the one hand, we have Gmail Help websites that are associated with Google (an example being the official Gmail blog). On the other hand, we have Gmail help websites that are set up by independent people.

Secondly, Gmail help websites can be categorized on the basis of the manner in which they are structured. Some are structured as blogs. Others are structured as discussion forums. Yet others are structured as article directories.

Thirdly, Gmail help websites can be categorized on the basis of the content in them. This is where, on the one hand, we end up with Gmail help websites that only contain information pertaining to Gmail. On the other hand, we have websites where information pertaining to Gmail is offered alongside information pertaining to other webmail systems. Thus, on a single website, you may also encounter info on Yahoo Mail, Hotmail, Shortmail, Bigstring and pretty much everything else you can think of, alongside that which pertains to Gmail.



There are several factors that make it hard to accurately analyze the effect of animal feed ingredients on crop nutrients. As the name suggests, the animal feed ingredients in question here are those which go into the making of the various feeds given to domestic and farm animals. Some of these ingredients are inevitably excreted as manure. And that is how they end up in farms, where they can be used as crop nutrients. That is also where they may unfortunately lead to an oversupply of crop nutrients, if the crops in question had already been supplied with similar nutrients through artificial fertilizers. You have to keep it in mind that it is not always through deliberate application that manures end up in soils supporting crops. Sometimes, the manures (and nutrients in them like Nitrogen and Phosphorous) are washed to such soils when it rains, in spite of the farmers using such soils having supplied similar nutrients artificially.

The crop nutrients in question are therefore the likes of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK). It becomes necessary to accurately analyze the formulation of animal feed ingredients, in order to figure out what percentages of the said crop nutrients (NPK) are in such animal feeds. Another objective of that analysis would be to determine what percentages of such nutrients are likely to be used up by the animals, and what percentages are likely to be excreted as manure, thus ending up on crop-supporting soils. Unfortunately, such analysis is not always easy. The specific factors that make it hard to accurately analyze the effect of animal feed ingredients on crop nutrients include:

1. The fact that the different animal feeds tend to have unique formulations. In most cases, the feed manufacturers only care about the ingredients that go into their feeds (such as corn, soybean, bone-meal and so on). They don’t care about the chemical composition of the ingredients. And that is an issue seeing that, for instance, two crops of corn used in making a single animal feed may have different levels of phosphorous in them, depending on where they were originally grown. We thus end up in a situation where the analysis is inaccurate, even for one single given animal feed ingredient.

2. The fact that different animals process the feed ingredients in different ways. This is where, for instance, monogastric animals are unable to process the portion of phosphorous known as phytates, which means that such phytates are automatically excreted in manure, making them available as crop nutrients to the soils they end up on. Other animals are able to process such phytates.

3. The fact that different soils have different (natural) crop nutrient levels. Thus, even in a given locality, you can (for instance) have one soil sample that is gets chocked by oversupply of phosphorous when some phosphorous rich manure ends up on it. Another soil getting the same phosphorous-rich manure would actually find it useful (in a supplemental sense), thanks to the low levels of phosphorous naturally present in that particular soil. Now it is true that soils within a given locality are supposed to be almost the same in terms of chemical composition, thanks to the fact that they originate from the same parent rocks. But things like artificial supplementation through fertilizers have brought about huge differences even within shared localities, hence this scenario.


There are several strategies through which the negative effects of animal feed ingredients on crop nutrients can be minimized. We will be looking at some of those strategies. But before doing so, there are several basic things we need to acquaint ourselves with. Those include:

The animal feed ingredients: these turn out to be the ingredients used in making the feeds that are administered (to farm animals) by the farmers who practice animal husbandry. Most of these feeds originate from farm products, such as corn and soybeans. As such, they have nutrients derived from the soils where the farm products used in making them were grown. Such nutrients, which also turn out to be of relevance as crop nutrients include things like Nitrogen (in the form that is absorbable by plants) and Phosphorous.

Crop nutrients: these are the nutrients that crops need for their well-being, seeing that the crops (plants) are also living things which require nutrients. Worth noting about the nutrients in question here is the fact that they are required in optimal levels: neither too much, nor too low.

The negative effects

The negative effects of animal feed ingredients on crop nutrients start manifesting when the crop nutrients in such animal feed ingredients seep into the soil (when the nutrients are excreted as manure).

If crops are to do well, they need optimal levels of various nutrients. To ensure this, farmers subject their soils to chemical analysis, where the right levels of various nutrients are figured out. They proceed to supplement what is there through chemical fertilizers. But should such soils get even more of the nutrients that were artificially supplemented through things like nutrient-containing manures washed into the farms, you’d end up with an oversupply of the said nutrients. That would hamper productivity. That situation, where animal feed ingredients end up interfering with crop nutrients is clearly undesirable. This is what makes it necessary to avoid such scenarios through among other strategies:

1. Legislation: that is where, for instance, we have seen jurisdictions like Ontario in Canada passing legislation (by the name of Nutrient Management Act) to combat the whole scenario. This ends up being beneficial to not only the farmers involved in crop husbandry, but also the general public. The latter assertion is due to the fact that these nutrients that seep out of animal manure have an effect on things like groundwater resources, whose mineral levels they can alter. That is as in the case of something like Phosphorous seeping into groundwater resources.

2. Animal feed ration optimization: this is where, for instance, certain nutrients can be added to rations (in refined/synthetic form), thus increasing the uptake of things like nitrogen and phosphorous, and hence reducing the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous excreted. When dealing with monogastric animals, for instance, the increased supply of phytates can be useful in that regard — to the extent that it can reduce phosphorous excretions. Under this scheme, it is also possible to reduce the amount of nitrogen that is excreted as manure and which ends up in the soil, by simply reducing (or rather optimizing) the supply of proteins. This ensures that the animals only get the protein they need, which means that little or no nitrogen-rich protein is excreted.



For fast upgrades, uses content from AJAX dynamics. This is what makes it to gain more in popularity. It also has labels that act as subset of folders. This is useful for classifying an email account because labels have almost everything else that web based folders have. One can use specially designed labels to either create your own definitions manually or by using filters. The assigned labels appear on the left side of a account below Gmail’s default links. You can put different mails under different labels and by clicking on any specific label; mails under the chosen labels appear.

Because some people get hundreds of mails on a daily basis, sorting and prioritizing them in order of importance can be a very difficult task. So, many email users prefer to manage their accounts by creating folders. makes this simpler by allowing particular labels for different mails for easier access. This feature is pretty handy for bulk mails. This makes great.

Yahoo Mail also provides almost similar features with the same functionality. The Yahoo Toolbar allows parallel functions. One can easily personalize their account by making it possible to sign in with the toolbar. Another feature is the ability to create your own buttons which can enable you to use as many buttons as possible to manage accounts by providing links to your favorite websites. Instructions on how to use this feature and which are simple to follow are located in the “settings button”. Yahoo Mail also allows another element called bookmarks. There are many numbers of bookmarks that one can manage on the web. All you’d need to do is simply to search and categorize them.

Clearly, the number of advanced elements that the mail service providers currently avail is awesome. It would be very difficult to draw a demarcation line on which is the best between the two. What is undeniable is that Yahoo Mail is still slightly ahead of the pack.

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